Multiple channel radiofrequency (RF) transmitters are being used in magnetic resonance imaging to investigate a number of active research topics, including transmit SENSE and B1 shimming. Presently, the cost and availability of multiple channel transmitters restricts their use to relatively few sites. This paper describes the development and testing of a relatively inexpensive transmit system that can be easily duplicated by users with a reasonable level of RF hardware design experience. The system described here consists of 64 channels, each with 100 W peak output level. The hardware is modular at the level of four channels, easily accommodating larger or smaller channel counts. Unique aspects of the system include the use of vector modulators to replace more complex IQ direct digital modulators, 100 W MOSFET RF amplifiers with partial microstrip matching networks, and the use of digital potentiometers to replace more complex and costly digital-to-analog converters to control the amplitude and phase of each channel. Although mainly designed for B1 shimming, the system is capable of dynamic modulation necessary for transmit SENSE by replacing the digital potentiometers controlling the vector modulators with commercially available analog output boards.
The need for movement smoothness quantification to assess motor learning and recovery has resulted in various measures that look at different aspects of a movement's profile. This paper first shows that most of the previously published smoothness measures lack validity, consistency, sensitivity, or robustness. It then introduces and evaluates the spectral arc-length metric that uses a movement speed profile's Fourier magnitude spectrum to quantify movement smoothness. This new metric is systematically tested and compared to other smoothness metrics, using experimental data from stroke and healthy subjects as well as simulated movement data. The results indicate that the spectral arc-length metric is a valid and consistent measure of movement smoothness, which is both sensitive to modifications in motor behavior and robust to measurement noise. We hope that the systematic analysis of this paper is a step toward the standardization of the quantitative assessment of movement smoothness.
Interventional Radiology procedures (e.g., angio- plasty, embolization, stent graft placement) provide minimally in- vasive therapy to treat a wide range of conditions. These procedures involve the use of flexible tipped guidewires to advance diagnos- tic or therapeutic catheters into a patient’s vascular or visceral anatomy. This paper presents a real-time physically based hybrid modeling approach to simulating guidewire insertions. The long, slender body of the guidewire shaft is simulated using nonlinear elastic Cosserat rods, and the shorter flexible tip composed of a straight, curved, or angled design is modeled using a more efficient generalized bending model. Therefore, the proposed approach ef- ficiently computes intrinsic dynamic behaviors of guidewire inter- actions within vascular structures. The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated using detailed numerical simulations in- side 3-D blood vessel structures derived from preprocedural volu- metric data. A validation study compares positions of four phys- ical guidewires deployed within a vascular phantom, with the co- ordinates of the corresponding simulated guidewires within a vir- tual model of the phantom. An optimization algorithm is also implemented to further improve the accuracy of the simulation. The presented simulation model is suitable for interactive virtual reality-based training and for treatment planning.
Anatomically realistic and biophysically detailed multiscale computer models of the heart are playing an increasingly important role in advancing our understanding of integrated cardiac function in health and disease. Such detailed simulations, however, are computationally vastly demanding, which is a limiting factor for a wider adoption of in-silico modeling. While current trends in high-performance computing (HPC) hardware promise to alleviate this problem, exploiting the potential of such architectures remains challenging since strongly scalable algorithms are necessitated to reduce execution times. Alternatively, acceleration technologies such as graphics processing units (GPUs) are being considered. While the potential of GPUs has been demonstrated in various applications, benefits in the context of bidomain simulations where large sparse linear systems have to be solved in parallel with advanced numerical techniques are less clear. In this study, the feasibility of multi-GPU bidomain simulations is demonstrated by running strong scalability benchmarks using a state-of-the-art model of rabbit ventricles. The model is spatially discretized using the finite element methods (FEM) on fully unstructured grids. The GPU code is directly derived from a large pre-existing code, the Cardiac Arrhythmia Research Package (CARP), with very minor perturbation of the code base. Overall, bidomain simulations were sped up by a factor of 11.8 to 16.3 in benchmarks running on 6-20 GPUs compared to the same number of CPU cores. To match the fastest GPU simulation which engaged 20 GPUs, 476 CPU cores were required on a national supercomputing facility.
Miniature solenoids routinely enhance small volume nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy; however, no such techniques exist for patients. We present an implantable microcoil for diverse clinical applications, with a microliter coil volume. The design is loosely based on implantable depth electrodes, in which a flexible tube serves as the substrate, and a metal stylet is inserted into the tube during implantation. The goal is to provide enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of structures that are not easily accessed by surface coils. The first-generation prototype was designed for implantation up to 2 cm, and provided initial proof-of-concept for microscopy. Subsequently, we optimized the design to minimize the influence of lead inductances, and to thereby double the length of the implantable depth (4 cm).
Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. However, this disease can be prevented by detection and removal of precursor adenomatous polyps during optical colonoscopy (OC). During OC, the endoscopist looks for colon polyps. While hyperplastic polyps are benign lesions, adenomatous polyps are likely to become cancerous. Hence, it is a common practice to remove all identified polyps and send them to subsequent histological analysis. But removal of hyperplastic polyps poses unnecessary risk to patients and incurs unnecessary costs for histological analysis. In this paper, we develop the first part of a novel optical biopsy application based on narrow-band imaging (NBI). A barrier to an automatic system is that polyp classification algorithms require manual segmentations of the polyps, so we automatically segment polyps in colonoscopic NBI data.
The bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) technique is potentially a useful tool to differentiate malignancy based on the variation of electrical properties presented by different tissues and cells. The different tissues and cells present variant electrical resistance and reactance when excited at different frequencies. The main purpose of this area of research is to use impedance measurements over a low-frequency bandwidth ranging from 1 kHz to 3 MHz to 1) differentiate the pathological stages of cancer cells under laboratory conditions and 2) permit the extraction of electrical parameters related to cellular information for further analysis. This provides evidence to form the basis of bioimpedance measurement at the cellular level and aids the potential future development of rapid diagnostics from biopsy materials. Three cell lines, representing normal breast epithelia and different pathological stages of breast cancer, have been measured using a standard impedance analyzer driving a four-electrode chamber filled with different cell suspensions. We identify the specific BIS profile for each cell type and determine whether these can be differentiated. In addition, the electrical parameters,
The accurate navigation and location of a biopsy needle is of main clinical interest in cases of image-guided biopsies for patients with suspected cancerous lesions. Magnetic induction (MI) imaging is a relatively new simple and low-cost noninvasive imaging modality that can be used for measuring the changes of electrical conductivity distribution inside a biological tissue. The feasibility of using MI principles for measuring and imaging the location of a biopsy needle in a tissue with suspected lesion was studied in simulations and with an experimental system. A contactless excitation/sensing unit was designed, and raster scan was performed on a thin tissue slab with an inserted standard 22 gauge stainless steel biopsy needle. A 30-mA, 50-kHz excitation field was employed, and the secondary-induced electromotive force (emf(s)) was measured and plotted on a 2-D plane in order to yield an image of the needle location. The simulations demonstrated the significance of utilizing a ferrimagnetic core for the excitation coil in order to increase induced currents magnitude and scanning resolution.
Video oculography (VOG) is one of the most commonly used techniques for gaze tracking because it enables nonintrusive eye detection and tracking. Improving the eye tracking's accuracy and tolerance to user head movements is a common task in the field of gaze tracking; thus, a thorough study of how binocular information can improve a gaze tracking system's accuracy and tolerance to user head movements has been carried out. The analysis is focused on interpolation-based methods and systems with one and two infrared lights. New mapping features are proposed based on the commonly used pupil-glint vector using different distances as the normalization factor. For this study, an experimental procedure with six users based on a real VOG gaze tracking system was performed, and the results were contrasted with an eye simulator. Important conclusions have been obtained in terms of configuration, equation, and mapping features, such as the outperformance of the interglint distance as the normalization factor.
B. E (Computer Science)
B. E (Electronics and Communication)
B. E (Electrical and Electronics Eng.)
B. E (Information Technology)
B. E (Instrumentation Control and Eng.)
M. E (Computer Science)
M. E (Power Electronics)
M. E (Control System)
M. E (Software Engg)
M. E (Applied Electronics)
M. SC (IT , IT&M , CS&M, CS)
B.Sc. (IT , CS)